Read the text below and answers to the questions 28-40 on your answer sheet.
GT Reading: “Bushwalking”
Read the text below and answer Question 28-40.
In the United Kingdom bushwalking is usually referred to as hiking – an activity that people do as a form of physical exercise rather than a form of outdoor enjoyment. In Australia, people bushwalk as a form of mental recreation and social interaction. In New Zealand, bushwalking or tramping, as it is called there, is seen more as a group trip for at least a couple of days where walkers stay overnight in different sites as a part of their journey. The Indian and Nepalese version of bushwalking is where participants enjoy trekking through forests and mountains.
Although tours by motorised vehicles have made it easy for people to satisfy their quest for exploration, the value and charm of bushwalking has remained unique as one of the most natural ways of exploring nature. Unlike vehicle tours, bushwalking creates no noise pollution so the environment is largely left unspoiled.
In the early 1900s, the popularity of bushwalking as an adventure sport began to rise. The USA promoted it for the first time in an organised way by forming bushwalking clubs. A ‘hiking boom’ hit the USA in the 1930s as people joined bushwalking clubs by the thousands. These clubs brought together like-minded supporters of bushwalking and forged a strong connection with governmental authorities who developed and implemented the infrastructure for bushwalking. As a consequence, by the end of 1950s, bushwalking trails in the USA were established countrywide which, over time, led to an increase in the number of bushwalking clubs countrywide.
In the 1950s, Australia had around 20 bushwalking societies but today the number stands at well over 200. In the UK, some private tour companies and bushwalking guilds, have designed guided bushwalking tours ranging from a single day to over 2 weeks. Canada invites adventurous tourists from around the globe to bushwalk through its vast Rocky Mountains. New Zealand’s South Island is considered by many to be more attractive than the North Island for three major geographical features – its vast forests of Podocarpus trees, Kahurangi Mountain and the Paparoa caves. In India, increasingly huge numbers trek the Dzongri-Goechala trail of Sikkim and the trails of the Himalayas. In Africa, the countries of Congo, Kenya, Morocco, Uganda and Zambia are very popular for national and international bushwalkers.
The reasons people bushwalk vary – often it is not simply a journey to reach a destination but rather an open-ended journey where the experience along the way is more important than actually reaching the destination. Taking photographs of the flora and fauna and exploring the natural landscapes are popular activities also enjoyed while bushwalking. Sometimes it is not only for pleasure – zoology, botany, environmental science or forestry professionals sometimes bushwalk for research purposes.
There is a generally agreed etiquette among experienced bushwalkers which includes how they should treat the bush and how they should treat other fellow-walkers. The approach toward the bush known as ‘Minimum Impact Bushwalking (MIB)’ has been adopted in many countries and encourages bushwalkers to never harm the environment. The MIB motto is simply, ‘Take nothing but photos, leave nothing but footprints’. The second piece of bushwalker etiquette relates to noise that may disturb other fellow bushwalkers. It is expected that bushwalkers keep noise to a minimum while walking and do not carry any items such as radios or other electronic equipment that can create continuous noise.
Although bushwalkers anticipate adventure and enjoyment, bushwalking can result in life-threatening situations if precautions are not taken. Some of the circumstances that pose the greatest threat include becoming lost, inclement weather; hazardous terrain which can result in internal injuries such as an ankle sprain1; dehydration, exposure causing hypothermia and even sunburn are also among the perils bushwalkers may need to negotiate. To help bushwalkers, experts have developed a check-list, which is well known among bushwalkers as the ‘Ten Essentials of Bushwalking’ – map, compass, sunglasses, food & water, extra clothes, torch, first aid kit, fire starter, knife and, at least one other fellow bushwalker!
(1) A painful wrenching of the ankle ligaments
Look at the list of countries A-H below.
In which THREE countries there are associations for bushwalkers?
Write your answers A-H (in any order) in boxes 28-30 on your answer sheet.
List of countries
C New Zealand
H United Kingdom
Do the following information agree with the information given in the passage?
In boxes 31-36 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
31. People in the UK bushwalk to keep fit.
32. The USA is the most popular bushwalking country in the world.
33. The Paparoa caves are in New Zealand’s South Island.
34. Bushwalking in Canada can be dangerous.
35. Excessive cold and storms are major threats to bushwalkers.
36. According to experts, individuals should not bushwalk alone.
Answer the questions below.
Chose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
37. Who follows a set of rules in the bush?
38. What does Minimum Impact Bushwalking encourage bushwalkers to protect?
39. What should bushwalkers keep at a low level?
40. What can cause internal wounds amongst bushwalkers?
28-30. F, G, H [in any order]
32. NOT GIVEN
34. NOT GIVEN
37. experienced bushwalkers
38. the environment
40. hazardous terrain