The Printing Process & Yoga – IELTS General Reading Passage

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-27 which are based on the text below.

GT Reading: The Printing Process & Yoga

Read the text below and answer Questions 15-20.

The Printing Process

The world entered its first information revolution when the first printing press was built in 1450. Before this, typical ways of recording information were to carve words onto clay tiles and bamboo, or to write on parchment or papyrus. Fast forward to the digital age, the second information revolution, and it has now become possible to self-publish, have books printed in paperback or as an e-book, and some books are even free!

Digital warehouse
Long gone are the days when every book was printed before there was a buyer. Why print thousands of books only to find out that very few people want to buy them? Now it is possible to work with a printer in a process called Print On Demand (POD) and only print a paperback when you have an order.

To do this a printer has a digital warehouse with every book stored electronically. Once an order is placed, the printer has all of the electronic data necessary to print and deliver the book to its intended destination. Every month money is sent to all of the authors that have sold books that month.

Giving your book to the printer
Once written, an author can send his book electronically to the printer in the form of a PDF file or as a hardcopy that can be scanned and digitized by the printer.

Processing fees for all services from a printer are minimal but allow you to have access to large distribution networks of not only online bookstores but also the bricks and mortar retailers. These people may not buy your book but your book will be in their catalogues and they will order from the printer if someone asks for it.

Two Concerns
Speed is not the only priority for the printer, they are also concerned with quality and have 10 quality control checks on each book before it is shipped.

Sharp graphics and crisp text make it virtually impossible to distinguish a POD book from the more traditional offset copies. As technology continues to improve this can only get better.

As an author, it is possible to choose the type of book you want; paperback, hardback, or e-book (now the most popular form of book), the size of your book, type of paper, and type of cover (laminated, cloth or jacketed for hardbacks).

Questions 15– 20

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 15– 20 on your answer sheet.

15.  We experienced our first information revolution with the development of the …………………… .
16.  It is no longer necessary to print books in their …………………… .
17.  Print On Demand works by making sure that the printer has been given all of the relevant …………………… .
18.  If necessary the printer will scan and digitize your …………………… .
19.  The latest technology makes the difference between offset printing and Print On Demand almost …………………….. to tell.
20.  Apart from the traditional hardback and paperback books, authors can now publish in …………………….. form.

Read the text below and answer Questions 21– 27.


Developed more than 5,000 years ago, yoga can be a way of life that benefits you physically, mentally, and spiritually. But where to start? Here is a quick summary of five of the most common yoga styles practiced today.


Originated in India in the 15th century. Slow-paced, gentle, and focuses on breathing and meditation

Purpose: Introduces beginners to yoga with basic poses and relaxation techniques.
Benefits: Relieves stress, provides physical exercise, and improves breathing.
Good for: Beginners wanting to learn the basics of yoga.


Similar to Hatha, basic poses and breath-synchronized movements. Stresses the Sun Salutation, 12 poses where movement is matched to the breath.

Purpose: Links the breath with movement, builds lean muscle mass throughout the body.
Benefits: Helps improve strength and flexibility, tones the abdominal muscles, and reduces the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes.
Good for: Beginners and advanced yogis alike seeking to strengthen their bodies.


Metaphorically focuses on eight limbs. Fast-paced, intense with lunges, push-ups.

Purpose: Helps improve one’s spiritual self.
Benefits: Relieves stress, improves coordination, and helps with weight loss.
Good for: Fit people looking to maintain strength, stamina, and spirituality.


Covers all eight aspects of Ashtanga yoga and focuses on bodily alignment. Standing poses are emphasized, and are often held for long periods of time.

Purpose: Strengthens and brings the body into alignment.
Benefits: Helps improve balance, speeds up recovery from injury, builds up body strength
Good for: Beginners who want to learn the correct alignments in each pose and those with injuries, balance issues, and chronic medical conditions like arthritis.


Practiced in a 95 to 100 degree room. A series of 26 poses that allows for a loosening of tight muscles and sweating.

Purpose: Flushes out toxins and deeply stretches the muscles.
Benefits: Speeds up recovery from an injury, enhances flexibility, and cleanses the body.
Good for: Beginners, advanced yogis who want to push themselves and those with injuries.

Questions 21 – 27

Look at the following statements and the list of yoga styles below.

Match each statement with the correct style, A-E. Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 21-27 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

Yoga Styles

A  Hatha
B  Vinyasa
C  Ashtanga
D  Iyengar
E  Bikram

21.  A style where breathing and movement are in harmony.
22.  A style that focuses on improving your posture.
23.  A style for starters wanting to improve their breathing.
24.  A style that can help recovery from an injury and helps with posture.
25.  A style for someone hoping to lose weight.
26.  A style that helps muscles relax.
27.  A style that helps you to develop your spirituality.

15. printing press
16. thousands
17. electronic data
18. hard copy
19. impossible
20. e-book
21. B
22. D
23. A
24. D
25. C
26. E
27. C